Another name for ELISA is EIA, and both have the same meaning. It’s first and foremost use is the detection of autoimmune associated antibodies in people suffering from autoimmune disease. The linked enzyme can show the reactions among antigens and antibodies in a specific color.Thus the name “enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.” The ELISA test is associated with “immune” and “enzyme.” There is more to ELISA tests than use in antigen/antibody detection fields. There are ELISA tests that use different signal amplifying techniques rather than enzymes.So, what would be the definition of the ELISA test? It’s a test where ligand(s) engage in conjugation with the receptor(s) to make a visible and quantifiable change in color.
This test is a “wet-laboratory” test despite using a solid phase for the detection of the existence of the substance. This substance is generally in a liquid sample.
Below, we discuss the various ELISA tests.
The Direct ELISA test
The plate involved in this test has a coating of the virus antigen. The enzyme-associated precise antibody works together with the antigen and forms a complex.The Substrate added reacts with the enzyme and prompts an evident color change.
The Indirect ELISA test
The plate involved in this test has a coating of antigen. The first antibody captures the antigen to form a complex.The labeled detector antibody does conjugation with the capture antibody to create a bigger complex. The label is detected, and thus the antigen is detected.
The Sandwish ELISA test
The plate involved in this test has a coating of capture antibody. On the addition of the sample, the precise antigen binds to the coated capture antibody. Next is the addition of the detecting antibody that binds to the antigen. Next is the addition of the enzyme-linked secondary antibody that binds to detecting antibody. The final addition is of the substrate that reacts with the detecting antibody and induces the color changing.
The Competitive ELISA test
The Antibody is incubated with a sample that has the antigens to be detected to form a complex.The complex having the antibody is put into the micro-wells having a coating of the antigen. Thus, the free antibody is free to bind to the antigen on the micro-wells. Next is the addition of an Enzyme assonated secondary antibody that’s explicit to the primary antibody. The final addition is the substrate that reacts with the enzyme and induces a color change.
The best Antibody-antibodies Immunoassays are such that the users have to make the analyte sample. All of the other components are part of the ELISA kits. They include antibodies or antigens, plates, TMB solution, substrate solution, calibrators, controls, etc.
The use of the ELISA test in therapeutic diagnostic is widespread. Another documented use is the detection of the pathogen of plant diseases for plant research. Moreover, several industries, including the food industry, use the ELISA test for quality control. There is a wide variety of ELISA Kits on offer. The makers supply many and many kinds of products for customers all over the World.